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Bare Metal Firmware Development: What, When and How

Bare metal firmware development is a specialized approach that involves programming directly at the hardware level without relying on an operating system or any middleware. It gives programmers unmatched control over the embedded system's resources, enabling them to boost efficiency, cut costs, and adhere to strict specifications.

The development of bare metal firmware is crucial for embedded devices. It enables developers to take full advantage of hardware resources, resulting in quicker execution, less overhead, and greater effectiveness. This method is useful in systems with limited resources, real-time applications, and situations requiring great determination and responsiveness.

In this article, we’ll look at bare metal firmware development basics, its role in embedded systems development, best practices, and tools and frameworks used in this approach.


Bare metal firmware development 101

Understanding the hardware architecture in depth is necessary for creating bare metal firmware for embedded systems. The processor, memory hierarchy, peripherals, and connectivity are crucial components of hardware architecture. Knowing the instruction set architecture and execution characteristics of the processor, which is responsible for carrying out instructions and managing system operations, is essential for code optimization and effective performance. The properties and constraints of each level of the memory hierarchy in embedded systems must be understood to manage memory effectively.

Understanding peripherals’ operation and programming interfaces like timers, ADCs, DACs, and communication interfaces is crucial for interacting with external devices. Communication between components is facilitated via interconnections, and reliable and effective communication is made possible by understanding their protocols and constraints.

Bare metal firmware components

Integrating essential components, each of which serves a distinct function in the overall system operation, is required to develop bare-metal firmware. Let’s examine these elements in greater detail:

Bootloader: The system must be initialized, and the firmware must be loaded into the proper memory regions by the bootloader, a crucial part of bare metal firmware. It performs system checks, configures the relevant hardware, and primes the system for running the main firmware code.

Interrupt handlers: By controlling interruptions and promptly reacting to events, interrupt handlers are essential to developing bare-metal firmware. Hardware signals known as interrupts stop a program from running normally to handle urgent situations or outside stimuli. These interrupts can be controlled by interrupt handlers, which allow critical jobs to be processed immediately.

Device drivers: Device drivers are software elements that help the firmware and peripherals linked to the embedded system communicate. Sensors, actuators, communication interfaces, and other extraneous equipment are peripherals. Device drivers offer a standard interface that enables the firmware to communicate with peripherals without comprehending each device’s specifics.

Low-Level Communication Protocols: To facilitate data exchange with other systems or devices, bare metal firmware frequently necessitates the implementation of low-level communication protocols. The Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter (UART), Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C), and others are typical instances of such protocols.

Low-level programming languages for bare metal firmware development

Low-level programming languages enable direct hardware control and maximum performance and are crucial for bare metal firmware development.

C and assembly are two extensively used languages in this setting.

C: For the construction of bare metal firmware, the high-level programming language C offers a layer of abstraction. As a result, developers may concentrate on the logic and functionality rather than the intricate details of the hardware design because it provides a standardized and portable method for generating firmware code.

Assembly: A low-level programming language known as crowd gives users direct access to hardware registers and instructions. Assembly programming entails creating code directly correlating to the hardware’s machine instructions, unlike C, which offers an abstraction layer.

Microcontrollers and peripherals

For developers working on bare metal firmware, familiarity with microcontrollers and their peripherals is essential. A processing core, memory, and several peripherals are all combined on a single chip in microcontrollers. Timers, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), digital-to-analog converters (DACs), communication interfaces (UART, SPI, I2C), GPIO (General Purpose Input/Output) pins, and other peripherals are among them.

When is bare metal firmware development used?

Bare metal firmware development thrives in real-time systems where accurate timing and responsiveness are essential. Time-sensitive processes are frequently involved in real-time systems, and delays in task execution or interrupt handling can have serious repercussions. Bare metal firmware can deliver quicker response times and deterministic behavior by directly managing the hardware without the complexity of an operating system, guaranteeing that crucial activities are carried out within strict timing restrictions.

Bare metal firmware development is especially beneficial in resource-restricted situations, such as embedded systems with confined memory and processing capacity. Operating systems frequently use many system resources, especially ones with many features and abstraction layers. Contrarily, bare metal firmware allows programmers to optimize code and effectively use the resources, leading to lower memory footprints and lessened power usage. As a result, bare metal firmware is the best option for hardware with minimal resources, like microcontrollers or Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

Furthermore, bare metal firmware development is a good solution for unique or highly specialized hardware platforms. These platforms frequently need low-level modification and control since they could have distinctive features, user interfaces, or communication protocols. By creating bare metal firmware, developers can fully customize the firmware to use the platform’s unique features. As a result, the hardware’s capabilities can be used to their fullest potential, and unique functionality or protocols customized to the hardware platform’s individual needs can be implemented.

Bare Metal Firmware vs. RTOS vs. Linux-based systems

Comparing bare metal firmware development to other methods, such as real-time operating systems (RTOS), helps understand its advantages.

bare metal firmware dev vs rots vs linux

Bare metal firmware development has a lot of advantages.

First, since developers have direct access to the hardware, they can optimize code and reduce needless waste, improving performance and low latency.

Second, bare metal firmware allows for practical resource usage because there is no requirement for an operating system, which reduces memory footprint and power consumption.

Bare metal firmware offers predictable implementation for real-time applications, guaranteeing accurate timing and responsiveness.

Additionally, developers have total control over the system’s behavior and can modify the firmware to fulfill particular needs.

However, it has some drawbacks, too.

A particular challenge comes from the more complex nature of development, which requires developers to manually integrate functions traditionally offered by an operating system and handle low-level hardware interfaces. If not managed appropriately, this intricacy may result in mistakes. Also, because it is closely tied to the particular hardware platform, bare metal firmware is less portable than software that runs on existing operating systems or middleware.

The firmware may need to be significantly changed and adjusted to be ported to other hardware platforms. Finally, because everything must be built from scratch, including device drivers and higher-level abstractions, bare metal firmware development frequently takes longer than middleware or operating systems.

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What does it take to develop bare metal firmware?

Project setup

Setting up the build system, choosing the proper toolchain, and specifying the hardware-specific settings are all necessary while setting up a bare metal firmware project. The build system should be set up to manage the build process effectively and provide the desired output format, such as an executable binary. The proper toolchain, including the compiler and linker, must be chosen for the target microcontroller architecture to be compatible with and optimized.

Memory management

To effectively use the resources available, good memory management is essential while developing bare-metal firmware. Memory allocation for code, data, and stacks must be done carefully by developers. Additionally, they are responsible for managing memory-mapped peripherals, guaranteeing proper addressing and access to and control registers. It’s crucial to work heap and stack memory to avoid stack overflows and memory leaks.

Writing interrupt handlers and handling interrupts

Interrupt handlers are essential for managing time-sensitive events when developing bare-metal firmware. One must know the microcontroller’s interrupt architecture to configure and prioritize interrupts properly. Developers must write effective interrupt handlers to respond to specific interruptions and complete relevant tasks within time limits. When interrupts are handled correctly, significant events are processed swiftly, and the program’s usual flow is not disrupted.

Developing device drivers for peripherals

Device drivers are crucial for communicating with peripherals in a bare metal firmware environment. To comprehend the operation and configuration of the peripheral, developers must consult the datasheet or reference manual for the microcontroller. Device drivers that offer a standardized interface for the firmware to communicate with peripherals must be put into place. This entails setting up the peripheral’s registers, dealing with interrupts the peripheral’s produce, and offering higher-level functions for standard operations.

Low-level communication protocols

Low-level communication protocols must frequently be implemented to enable data transfer between the microcontroller and external devices while using bare-metal firmware. The policies and practices for data transmission and reception are outlined in protocols like UART, SPI, I2C, and others. Developers must modify the necessary hardware registers and control signals to put the protocols into use.

Debugging and testing

To find and address problems with bare metal firmware, developers need to use various debugging and testing methodologies. To stop the execution at precise points for inspection, utilize hardware breakpoints. The program flow and variable values can be tracked with logging tools, such as outputting debug information to a serial console. Emulators and simulators can emulate the target hardware and test the firmware in a controlled environment. The accuracy and reliability of the firmware can also be checked using assertion libraries and test cases.

Best practices for bare metal firmware development

It is essential to stick to recommended practices for bare metal firmware development. Code should be organized, modular, and reusable for streamlined development using recognized design patterns and layered architecture. Efficiency requires effective management of hardware resources, including power usage, peripheral configuration, and shared resource handling.

Performance can be improved by reducing the number of superfluous operations in the code and using compiler improvements. Rigorous testing, boundary checks, error handling systems, and the inclusion of safety features are all necessary to ensure code reliability and safety. Collaboration, maintainability, and troubleshooting are all aided by version control and documentation, which make it simple to track changes and offer insights into the architecture, design choices, and hardware-specific factors.

Tools and frameworks for bare metal firmware development

Many frameworks and tools are required for bare metal firmware development. Low-level programming tools, including compilers, linkers, and debuggers, are often used tools that provide crucial characteristics for effective development. Some libraries and frameworks simplify the procedure by offering reusable parts, abstraction layers, and standardized APIs, facilitating quicker development and code reuse.

The needs of various microcontroller families are met by specialized hardware development kits (HDKs) and integrated development environments (IDEs). These kits provide an all-inclusive solution for particular microcontrollers by providing customized toolchains, debugging skills, and emulation support. By leveraging these tools and packages, developers can more easily meet their microcontroller needs and speed up the development process.


For embedded devices, bare metal firmware development offers unmatched efficiency and control. Developers can optimize performance and resource utilization by digging into the hardware while meeting specific requirements. The advantages of bare metal firmware development make it an appealing option for many applications in the embedded systems industry, even though it necessitates expertise and extra development work.

Developers may maximize the benefits of bare metal firmware development and advance the field of embedded systems by adhering to best practices, using the proper tools and frameworks, and comprehending the nuances of the hardware.

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